Cells form the basic structure of a biological organism and are designed to develop, grow, and die. The health of an organism depends on the balance maintained between cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. An imbalance leads to diseases such as cancers and tumors. Assays or tests conducted by experts are important to know how a small or big molecule affects the cell cycle to help the pharma industry create better treatment options.
In the field of new drug development, cell proliferation assays are utilized to determine how a potential drug candidate or small molecule will affect the molecular, cellular, and biochemical reactions of cell population. The results of the investigative studies play a significant role in pharmacology and molecular biology. The three main advantages of the assays utilized by scientist and researchers are given below:
1. Determines the Efficacy of Small Molecule:
The number, as well as the type of the target cells, determine the type of assays scientists will utilize to conduct the assays. Once the target and cell viability assay are identified assays utilizing dyes to determine the efficacy of the small molecule. Further, visual and graphic representations of the cell proliferation assay help scientists understand the relation between the molecule and metabolic activities of the cell. Multiple assays enable scientists to accurately determine potency, safety, and efficacy of small molecules on cell clusters. The tests, thereby, help pharma companies to expedite their drug product from lab to market.
2. Determines Cytotoxicity that Help Create Better Oncological Treatments:
Cell proliferation assays determine the best course of action to deal with the rapid growth of damaged cells. Biochemical probing or colorimetric assays utilize cell permeability functions. Reactions to analytes or the metabolic activity of the cells help scientist identify whether the small molecule causes necrosis or apoptosis. In simple, terms, if the small molecule leads to cell death, it will form the basis for oncological treatment plans. However, cell proliferation assays are always conducted in conjunction with cell viability and cell toxicity assays.
3. Helps Find Solutions to Maintain the Cell Cycle Balance:
The main aim of an assay is to measure how effectively a small molecule creates a balance between cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. For this reason alone, cell proliferation assays conducted by experienced teams focus on the principles of identification, amplification, standard-curve detection, sensitivity, and selectivity of a small molecule. The investigative results of these studies help take healthcare and treatment standards forwards.
However, the success of cell proliferation and cell viability assay depend on the care taken to follow the FDA guidelines for communication and transfer of knowledge from pre-analytical to post-analytical steps. It is, therefore, necessary to document each aspect of the research for future verification. Scientists at contract research organizations follow protocols for method validation, calibration, test accreditation and licensing, etc., to establish reliability, maintain legal acceptability, and overall accountability. Quality and accuracy of the tests are necessary to inform regulatory authorities that the compound is ready to move from test tube research to preclinical and from there to clinical trials.